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The study was anonymous; biological specimens and questionnaires were linked by unique number, which participants could use to access test results.
Blood was drawn and trained interviewers administered a pretested, structured questionnaire with sections on demographics, sexual behaviour, HIV/AIDS knowledge, risk perception and testing history, STI knowledge and treatment seeking, exposure to HIV prevention interventions, alcohol and drug use.
In 2001, the government estimated that 110 000 Indonesians were infected with HIV, most of them people with high risk behaviours such as female sex workers and their clients, and injecting drug users.
Methods: Anonymous, cross sectional surveys among community recruited transgender and male sex workers and self recognised men who have sex with men (MSM) were undertaken in mid-2002 in Jakarta, Indonesia.Blood was drawn for HIV and syphilis serology and community interviewers administered a standardised questionnaire.Results: HIV prevalence was 22% among transgender sex workers, 3.6% among male sex workers, and 2.5% among self recognised MSM, and syphilis prevalence was 19.3%, 2.0% and 1.1% respectively.In early 2002, formative research identified a variety of subpopulations of MSM in Jakarta.These included waria and male identified sex workers and their clients, as well as men who have sex with other men out of sexual preference.