The Swazi settlers, then known as the Ngwane (or baka Ngwane), before entering Swaziland had been settled on the banks of the Pongola River.Prior to that they were settled in the area of the Tembe River near present-day Maputo.This continued under the rule of Ngwane V until the outbreak of the Second Boer War in October 1899.King Ngwane V died in December 1899 during incwala after the outbreak of the Boer war. Swaziland was indirectly involved in the war with various skirmishes between the British and the Boers occurring in the country until 1902.At no more than 200 kilometres (120 mi) north to south and 130 kilometres (81 mi) east to west, Swaziland is one of the smallest countries in Africa; despite this, its climate and topography are diverse, ranging from a cool and mountainous highveld to a hot and dry lowveld.
Under Sobhuza I, the Ngwane people eventually established their capital at Zombodze in the heartland of present-day Swaziland.Swaziland is a member of the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations and the United Nations.The Swazi population faces major health issues: HIV/AIDS and, to a lesser extent, tuberculosis are serious challenges.In this process, they conquered and incorporated the long established clans of the country known to the Swazi as Emakhandzambili.Swaziland derives its name from a later king named Mswati II.
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The autonomy of the Swaziland nation was influenced by British and Dutch rule of southern Africa in the 19th and early 20th centuries.